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醫師排班軟体
[轉載] 列克星頓機場塔台控制人員只睡了二小時
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plasticsuper
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註冊時間: 2005-08-04
文章: 622
來自: 台北

發表 發表於: 星期四 八月 31, 2006 10:34 pm
發表 文章主題: [轉載] 列克星頓機場塔台控制人員只睡了二小時
引言回覆

上星期,美國肯塔基州的列克星頓機場發生了嚴重的空難,飛機起飛時弄錯了跑道,結果飛不上去而栽下來造成全機50人只有一人獲救。

機師是非常有經驗的飛行員,而且經常飛這航線,為什麼會弄錯跑道?美國國家飛航安全委員會調查時發現當天的塔台控制人員只睡了二個小時,就繼續值下一班,這可能是意外的導火線之一。以下是CNN的報導:

NTSB: Lexington controller had only 2 hours of sleep

以下轉載自CNN 2006 Aug 31的報導
引言回覆:

LEXINGTON, Kentucky (CNN) -- The lone air-traffic controller on duty at the time of a jet crash Sunday morning in Lexington, Kentucky, was working on only two hours of sleep, a National Transportation Safety Board spokeswoman said Wednesday.

The controller told investigators that he had worked in the Blue Grass Airport tower from 6:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Saturday before reporting to work again at 11:30 p.m. Saturday, said Debbie Hersman, the NTSB member in charge of the crash investigation.

He was scheduled to work until 8 a.m. Sunday, she said.

"He advised our team that he got approximately two hours of sleep," the NTSB spokeswoman said.

Air-traffic controllers are required to have eight hours off between shifts; the Lexington controller had nine, Hersman said.

The NTSB is trying "to determine what the cumulative effect of his work schedule might have been," she said.

Comair Flight 5191 began its takeoff roll down the wrong runway early Sunday morning while the controller was busy with paperwork. Also, it was revealed Wednesday, the 47 passengers aboard were unaware that the flight crew had started that Sunday morning by mistakenly getting onto another plane.

The Comair CRJ-100 crashed past the end of Runway 26, killing 49 of 50 people onboard. The co-pilot survived and is in critical condition at a Lexington hospital.

The Federal Aviation Administration on Tuesday acknowledged that having only one controller in the tower violated the agency's policy.

The revelation came after CNN obtained a November 2005 FAA memorandum spelling out staffing levels at the airport. The memo says two controllers are needed -- one to monitor air traffic on radar and another to perform other tower functions, such as communicating with taxiing aircraft. (Text of the memo -- PDF)

When two controllers are not available, the memo says, the radar monitoring function should be handed off to the FAA center in Indianapolis, Indiana.

The FAA told CNN that the lone controller at Blue Grass was performing both functions Sunday in violation of the policy.

The controller's last look at the jet occurred when it was on the taxiway, according to NTSB investigators.

"He had cleared the aircraft for takeoff, and he turned his back and performed administrative duties in the tower," Hersman said. (Watch what pilots may have seen -- 2:09)

She said the controller cleared Flight 5191 to take off on Runway 22, the 7,000-foot lighted runway used by commercial jets.

Instead, the crew tried to take off on the unlit Runway 26, which was about half as long. (Airport layout)

The controller told the NTSB he had an unobstructed view of both runways, Hersman said, but because he was not looking in that direction, he was unaware of a problem until he heard the crash.

Air traffic controllers are not responsible for making sure pilots are on the right runway, John Nance, a pilot and aviation analyst, told The Associated Press. "You clear him for takeoff and that's the end of it," Nance said, according to AP.

The Lexington Herald-Leader reported Tuesday that in 1993 a plane mistakenly lined up on Runway 26 instead of Runway 22, but the tower noticed the error in time.

Turning onto the wrong runway was not the only mistake the crew made Sunday, according to the NTSB. When they arrived at the airport at 5:15 a.m., the captain and first officer boarded the wrong plane and turned on the power before a ramp worker pointed out their mistake.

Hersman said it was the flight's captain, Jeffrey Clay, who taxied the aircraft into position at the start of the wrong runway. Clay then turned over the controls to the co-pilot, James Polehinke, who was flying the plane when it crashed. Hersman said that was standard procedure.

Hersman said both crew members were familiar with the Lexington airport but that neither had been to the airport since a repaving project a week earlier altered the taxiway route.

She said investigators will continue to gather information on how the pilot and co-pilot spent the 72 hours before the flight. She said toxicology testing for alcohol and drugs is routine.

Staffing boosted after crash
Andrew Cantwell, regional vice president of the controller's union, said he could not say with certainty whether additional staffing would have prevented the crash, but a second person would have allowed the controller to focus on operations.

In a statement Tuesday, the FAA suggested that a second controller would not have prevented the accident.

"Had there been a second controller present on Sunday, that controller would have been responsible for separating airborne traffic with radar, not aircraft on the airport's runways," the statement said.

The FAA this week increased overnight staffing at Lexington as well as at airports in Duluth, Minnesota, and Savannah, Georgia, Cantwell said.

Doug Church, spokesman for the National Air Traffic Controllers Association, said there has been a net loss of 1,081 controllers in the last three years, due largely to a wave of retirements, the AP reported.

Tire marks indicate the plane's wheels went into grass beyond the end of the runway. It became airborne after hitting an earthen berm, clipped a perimeter fence and struck a stand of trees before hitting the ground, said Hersman. (Watch a tour of the crash site -- 1:42)

A longtime pilot familiar with Blue Grass Airport told the Lexington newspaper that the airport is confusing and getting onto the wrong runway is easier than it sounds.

Russ Whitney told the paper that Runway 22, the one Flight 5191 should have been on, has a hump in the middle, so pilots cannot see the whole thing as they begin takeoff. Runway 22 and the much shorter Runway 26 can appear to be the same length, he said, according to the newspaper.

On Wednesday, victims' families were scheduled to tour the crash site before a memorial service, the AP reported.

飛機跑錯跑道的原因為何?塔台人員工作過度,或許是一個原因。但事實上塔台人員在二班之間是有九個小時休息時間的,只是當天這位人員僅睡了二小時。想一想也情有可原,下午二點半下班,怎麼睡得著?等到有些想睡時,晚上十一點又要上工了。

國內住院醫師值班的情形遠比這樣更糟,經常是連續上班32小時後,休息12小時。不僅過度壓榨住院醫師的体力,也犧牲了病患的安全。邱小妹妹事件就是一宗活生生的例子,當時神經外科林醫師,便是32-12-32-12...這樣在值班的。各位可以試試看工作32小時的滋味,就可以稍為理解為什麼他晚上有病人卻不爬起來看了。但是比這更糟的是媒体和政客,把這位醫師送上斷頭台,博得收視率,推掉了責任,然後呢?真正導致這場事件的原因卻沒有檢討。(衛生署醫師懲戒覆審委員會後來做了非常公正的處分和說明)

若是此墜機是發生在台灣,那麼這位塔台人員大概也要被媒体和政客抓來血祭了。問題是血祭之後,我們得到什麼?改善什麼?各位或許還記得1998年中正機場一架華航客機墜機的事情吧?請問有人知道為什麼會墜機嗎?應該沒有,媒体只關心那些人死了,家屬如何哀痛,那些官員要負責,等到事情冷掉了,就沒有人願意花點力氣了解為什麼機長會在高度過高的情形下硬要降落,副機師的制止為何無效,塔台人員有沒有加以警告高度問題,以後又應該如何防止。(客觀的說,一定有有識之士用心在調查研究,但是民眾根本沒有興趣聽這東西,媒体也就不想報導)。

我看了這篇CNN報導,遣辭用字都很小心客觀,人時地都交待得很清楚,沒有激情和灑狗血,更沒有台灣媒体那種引述某個見不得人的謠言,加上自行臆測,並自動向某政治方向偏頗產生的文章。希望國內頭腦清楚的民眾能多給予好的媒体鼓勵,並關掉或call in去抵制不良的媒体及報導。

最後,我覺得自己該以身作則,檢視一下是否偏坦醫護人員而漠視民眾的權利和安危?譬如說這一類的批評,我們除了斥為不理性外,能否站在對方的立場反省並從中找出有建設性的批評點?

_________________
With malice toward none, with charity for all

各位!電腦不要看太久,起身運動一下吧

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